Montessori International Diploma (Early Years Educator)

This course covers the government requirements and also the Montessori requirements for teaching in an early years setting, or, with the appropriate experience, running your own setting.

 

Montessori International Diploma (Early Years Educator)

Syllabus

Contents:

Unit One: Knowledge of Childcare & Education (ages 0-7)

Module 1A: Preparing the Environment                                              p.  3

Module 1C: How Children Develop                                                    p.  9

Module 1D: Observing, Assessing and Planning                                p. 13

Module 1E: How Children Think and Learn                                        p. 15

Unit Two: Use of the Montessori Materials (ages 2½-6)

Module 2A: Practical Life Skills                                                          p. 17

Module 2B: Sensorial Education                                                        p. 21

Module 2C: Teaching about the World                                               p. 23

Module 2D: Developing Language in Early Childhood                       p. 27

Module 2E: Developing Numeracy in Early Childhood                      p. 31

Module 2F: Creative Work                                                                 p. 33

Unit Three: Teaching Practice

Module 3A: Working with Individual Children                                    p. 35

Module 3B: Working with Groups of Children                                   p. 37

Module 3C: Classroom and Nursery Management                           p. 39

Version dated 01.02.2015

Introduction

The qualification has three units, each of which is graded independently.  There are several modules (or sub-units) to each unit but they are not graded independently.

Each syllabus module is presented under the following headings:

  1. Title
  2. Prerequisite modules – modules necessary to have been studied before studying this module
  3. Rationale
  4. Representative Topics – these are not intended as a definitive list and tutors may use other content to effectively deliver the learning outcomes
  5. Teaching and Learning Strategies
  6. Learning Outcomes – these are largely derived from the NCTL’s specification for the Early Years Educator (EYE) qualification and the competencies for the age range promulgated by the Montessori Accreditation Council for Teacher Education (MACTE)
  7. Reading from the Set Texts – this reading is required and is taken from the set texts listed below:                                                                                                                         Gettman, D. (1987). Basic Montessori: Learning Activities for Under-                                 Fives. London: St Martin’s Press

Lillard, P.P (1972).  Montessori A Modern Approach New York; Schocken  Books.

Montessori, M. (1936). The Secret of Childhood. (any version)

Montessori, M. (1948a). The Discovery of the Child (any version)

Montessori, M. (1948b). The Absorbent Mind (any version – also available as a free e-book from www.archive.org or (paid for) from Kindle)

Sharma, A. & Cockerill, H., (2014). Mary Sheridan’s From Birth to Five Years: Children’s Developmental Progress. (3rd ed.) London: Routledge. (also available as a Kindle e-book)

The Statutory Framework for the EYFS 2014 (only available free online from the DfE website)

plus a series of books of readings which are issued free of charge to adult learners.

  1. Indicative Further Reading – a short selection of relevant texts to illustrate the types of sources adult learners should be consulting.  This is indicative, not set, reading but additional reading is expected.
  2. Hours – showing the time that learners might expect to spend in lectures and in private study, including background reading, coursework preparation & examinations.  In addition there is a requirement for 400 hours of assessed work experience.

 



Unit One: Knowledge of Childcare & Education (ages 0-7)

 

Module 1A: Preparing the Environment

 

Prerequisite modules:  none

 

Rationale:    

 

This module is designed to introduce a some of the key concepts in the Montessori Method, including the understanding that a child’s environment plays a vital role in supporting their proper development.  It includes a brief introductory survey of Montessori’s life and work, and aims to develop knowledge & understanding of:

  • the nature and workings of an authentic Montessori nursery
  • the critical role of the environment in a child’s development and education
  • the concept of the Montessori prepared environment for pre-schoolers
  • how to design & prepare a suitable environment

 

Representative Topics:

 

The history of Montessori’s life, emphasising the foundation and character of the first Montessori environment – the Casa dei Bambini.  Importance of orderliness.

The Montessori ‘Triangle’ i.e. the mutual interdependence of the prepared environment, the Montessori teacher and the developing child.

 

Importance of the early environment (from conception onwards).  The significance of Itard’s ‘wolf boy’ & other cases of severe deprivation.  Sensitive periods/windows of opportunity.  Internal and external environments and Montessori’s concept of the Spiritual Embryo.   Enrichments programmes – e.g. Headstart.

 

The concept of the ideal/prepared environment – Montessori’s views.  How to design and plan a nursery including drawing a Montessori nursery layout (both internal and external environments).    6 aspects of the prepared environment.  Safety in the nursery environment.   Keeping children safe without preventing them from taking risks.    How the physical environment of the nursery affects the curriculum and vice versa.   The Montessori Curriculum and Early Learning Goals, enabled through the prepared environment.

 

Teaching and Learning Strategies:

 

This module will be taught by a mixture of lectures, directed resource based learning, discussion, small group activities, and DVDs of Montessori nursery settings with opportunities to review the model classroom at the Centre.   During the teaching practice students have to visit a minimum of three contrasting nursery settings in order to broaden their understanding of varying approaches to setting up a childcare environment.   There will also be opportunities for them to reflect on their experience of teaching individuals and groups, and of managing the whole day.

 

Learning Outcomes (LOs):

 

Adult learners will be expected to: and be assessed by:
1. analyse the child’s need for order, with particular reference to their nursery environment[1]. Question(s) in the ‘Nursery Practice’ section of the theory exam.
2. design a prepared environment for young children that meets current requirements, both national (i.e. the latest EYFS document for UK learners) and Montessori. 1,500 word coursework essay with drawn & scaled plans 
3. maintain the prepared environment appropriately. workplace observation / mentor’s report 
4.  analyse the concept of ‘authenticity’ in a Montessori context 2,000 word coursework essay 

 

Reading from the Set Texts:

 

Authenticity in Montessori Education: A Book of Readings. (2012). Westhorpe; MAEL. readings 1-3/8-9

Lillard, P.P (1972). Montessori A Modern Approach New York; Schocken Books. ch.3 pp. 50 –77

Montessori, M. (1948a). The Discovery of the Child, chapter 2.

Montessori, M. (1948b). The Absorbent Mind, chapters 3, 7 & 9.

The Statutory Framework for the EYFS 2014

The Child’s Environment (ages 2½-6 years) A Book of Readings. (2008, 2nd ed.). Westhorpe; MAEL, readings 1-8.

 

Indicative Further Reading:

 

Bednarczuk, B. & Zdybel, D. (eds.) (2014). Learning in the Montessori Classroom. Lublin; Marie Curie-Skłodowska University Press.

Bee, H. & Boyd, D. (2010). The Developing Child. (12th ed.) Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon, pp.368-370.

Chattin-McNichols J. (1992). The Montessori Controversy. New York; Delmar Publishers Inc., chs. 6 – 9.

Cole and Cole, M. & S. (2001). The Development of Children. (4th ed.)  New York; Worth Publishers, ch. 1 pp.1- 15, ch. 2 pp.49 – 7.

De Jesus R. (1988). Design Guidelines for Montessori Schools Milwaukee W.I.; University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Center for Architecture & Urban Planning Research.

Feez, S. (2010). Montessori and Early Childhood. London: Sage.

Lillard, A.S. (2005). Montessori: the science behind the genius. Oxford; Oxford University Press, chapter 7.

Meggitt, C. (2012). Understand Child Development. London: Hodder Education ch. 9

Seldin, T. (2001). A Sense of Timeless Beauty: Designing facilities for Montessori programs. The Montessori Foundation.

Wolf, A. (n.d.). A Parent’s Guide to the Montessori Classroom.  (2nd ed.) Altoona, PA; Parent Child Press.

 

Hours (tuition):     20                                            Hours (private study): 50

 


 

Unit One: Knowledge of Childcare & Education (ages 0-7)

           

Module 1B: The Teacher’s Task

 

Prerequisite modules:  none

 

Rationale:

 

This module covers the unique role of the Montessori Directress (or teacher) and how that is put into practice.  It also aims to develop knowledge & understanding of:

  • how to motivate children to behave appropriately and to learn willingly
  • how to organise and maintain a classroom or nursery
  • how to protect children – from interference by adults or other children, from bullying or from any form of abuse
  • the importance of promoting equality, diversity and inclusion
  • identifying and assisting children with learning differences or additional needs
  • the importance of reflective practice and continuing professional development
  • the ‘spiritual’ development of the teacher

 

Representative Topics:

 

Teacher’s role in the preparation of the environment.   The Montessori concept of the process of ‘normalisation’.   Discipline/self discipline, freedom and the development of the will.  The three levels of obedience.  Behavioural problems e.g. tantrums.  Causes of behavioural problems e.g. glue ear, dyslexia etc.  Personality development/ types.  Pampered/deviant children, strong/weak children.  Promoting & modelling desirable behaviours.

 

‘Spiritual’ preparation of the teacher -  importance of self evaluation, reflection and continuing professional development.  Self appraisal.  Concept of the ‘directress’.  The characteristics of an ideal Montessori teacher.  Use of job descriptions and person specification in staff selection.  Modelling positive behaviour.

 

National standards.  The teacher’s role in caring, having a good knowledge of child development, high but realistic expectations of children, a pleasant manner & approach with children, questioning children.

 

Role of the teacher in motivating a child.   Intrinsic/extrinsic motivation.  Rewards/Punishment.  Self-concept and motivation.   McV. Hunt & the problem of the match; meeting the need of individuals according to developmental stage, specific needs & circumstances

 

Equality of opportunity; providing for inclusion & diversity; recognising special needs (e.g. autism) and learning differences (e.g. dyslexia, dyscalculia) & catering for individual needs.

 

Teacher’s role in recognising & supporting ‘sensitive periods.’  Teacher’s role in child protection (from physical, sexual or emotional abuse, anti-bullying strategies, protecting child from undue pressure/adult disapproval).   Recognition of signs of abuse.  Identifying and assisting children with learning differences or additional needs.

 

Teaching and Learning Strategies:

 

The module will be taught by a mixture of lectures, DVDs, resource based learning, discussion and small group activities.   During the teaching practice there will be opportunities for students to reflect on their experience of teaching individuals and groups.


Learning Outcomes (LO):

 

Adult learners will be expected to: and be assessed by:
1. analyse the child’s need for order, with particular reference to their home environment[2], Case study
2.  review methods of developing positive behaviour in children. 2,000 word coursework essay 
3. support children to order for them develop self-discipline in their relationships with others workplace observation 
4. clearly describe the importance of promoting diversity, equality and inclusion in the nursery, fully taking into account cultural differences and family circumstances 2,000 word coursework essay
5. effectively promote equality of opportunity and anti-discriminatory practice in an early years setting and to use culturally responsive methods classroom observation by tutor and/or mentor
6. reflect on own progress in attitudes to equal opportunities and anti-discriminatory practice Summative reflection and discussion with tutor and/ot mentor
7.  describe the situations when intervention for a child with learning differences or additional needs is appropriate Teaching practice task 
8.  work within the setting team to  plan and provide activities to meet additional needs, working in partnership with parents and/or carers and other professionals, where appropriate workplace observation 
9.  explain the importance of CPD and undertake a minimum of 100 hours of CPD during the teaching practice phase of the course. explanatory introduction to, and keeping of, a reflective diary 

 

Reading from the Set Texts:

 

Lillard, P.P (1972).  Montessori A Modern Approach New York; Schocken Books. ch.1 p.2-23, ch 3 p.77-90

Montessori, M. (1948a). The Discovery of the Child chapters 3, 10 & 23

Montessori, M. (1948b). The Absorbent Mind chapters 18-20/24-27

Montessori, M. (1966). The Secret of Childhood. New York: Ballantine Books pp. 148 – 153

The Statutory Framework for the EYFS 2012 module 3

The Teacher’s Task: A Book of Readings (2007). Westhorpe: MAEL

 

Indicative Further Reading:

 

Devarakonda, (2013). Diversity andf Inclusion in Early Childhood. London: Sage.

Hayes, C. et al. (2014). Developing as a Reflective Early Years Professional. St. Albans: Critical Publishing Ltd.

Lillard, A.S. (2005). Montessori: the science behind the genius. Oxford; Oxford University Press, (chapters 5 & 8).

McCoumbs, B.L. & Whisler, J.S. (1997). The Learner-Centred Classroom. San Francisco, CA; Jossey-Bass.

McTamaney, C. (2012). A Delicate Task: teaching and learning on a Montessori path. Bloomington, IN; iUniverse Inc.

Montessori, M. (ed. Haines, A.) (2012). The 1946 London Lectures. Amsterdam; Montessori-Pierson. Lectures 30 -32 incl.

Palmer, P.J.(2007). The Courage to Teach: Exploring the inner landscape of a teacher’s life. San Francisco, CA; Jossey-Bass.

Ramachandran, R. (ed.) (1994). Creative Development in the Child Vol. I. Madras, Kalakshetra, chapters 1, 5-6.

Ramachandran, R. (ed.) (1998). Creative Development in the Child Vol. II. Madras, Kalakshetra, chapter 38.

 

Hours (tuition):  20                                                 Hours (private study):  50

 


 

Unit One: Knowledge of Childcare & Education (ages 0-7)

 

Module 1C: How Children Develop

 

Prerequisite modules:  none

 

Rationale:

 

Many factors can push a child off their ideal course of development.  This module develops an understanding of the overall pattern of human growth and development, and the transitions which a child may experience, focusing on the processes of child development in the target age range and aiming to develop knowledge & understanding of:

  • the stages of the physical, personal, emotional and social development of young children.
  • the importance of these stages to the whole development of the human person
  • the means of assessing the developmental stage(s) of a child.
  • the means of aiding and supporting this development

 

Representative Topics:

 

Norms and milestones of child development 0 – 7 years (emphasizing significant transitions – both horizontal & vertical).  Montessori’s stress that life begins at conception.  Factors affecting development e.g. diet, disease/illness, genetic factors, social class, prematurity, family & social circumstances, educational opportunities, disability, birth experience; pregnancy (e.g. mother’s use of alcohol/drugs), experience of discrimination.

 

Physical, emotional and social development within this period.    Emotional development – bonding, mothering, attachment theory – Harlow, Bowlby, Rutter.  Sensitive mothering – Ainsworth.   Sensitive periods.

 

Montessori’s 4 planes of development, emphasizing first plane of the absorbent mind.  Importance of movement/ activity/walking  in development.   Erikson/Montessori/Montanaro’s developmental crises of 1st 3 years (birth, weaning, opposition); Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model of childhood.

 

Teaching and Learning Strategies:

 

The module will be taught by a mixture of lectures, discussion and small group activities, including the use of DVDs for practice in observing and assessing developmental stages.

 


 

Learning Outcomes (LO):

 

Adult learners will be expected to: and be assessed by:
1. concisely describe Montessori’s concept of ‘planes of development’ and apply it to individual children; demonstrated through a written examination question. Procedural knowledge of Montessori’s concept of ‘planes of development’ and its application to individual children;  tested by a  theory examination question in the child development module of the unseen theory examination paper
2. describe the expected pattern of physical development in the Early Years and to review the importance of physical development to the overall development of the child.  coursework essay
3. construct plans and demonstrate a developing skill in leading activities to aid physical development. workplace observation
4. describe the expected pattern of social development in the Early Years and to review the importance of social development to the overall development of the child. structured observation of a child with Setailed evaluation
5. describe the expected pattern of emotional development in the Early Years and to review the importance of emotional development to the overall development of the child. written case study report
6.  concisely describe the significance of attachment and discuss how to promote it effectively. coursework essay
7. construct plans and demonstrate a developing skill in leading activities to aid personal, social and emotional development[3]. practical examination and workplace observation
8. discuss how individual circumstances can affect learning and development[4]. written case study
9.  discuss the potential effects of educational transitions and significant events[5] in children’s lives examination question(s)
10.  describe & apply theoretical models of child development[6] to the target age-group examination question(s)

 


 

Reading from the Set Texts:

 

Lillard, P.P. (1972). Montessori: A Modern Approach. New York: Schocken Books

Montessori, M. (1966). The Secret of Childhood. New York, Ballantine Books. pp.37-47, 71-79

Montessori, M. (1948a). The Absorbent Mind. (various printings available) chapters 3, 8, 13-16

Readings in Child Development. (2008). Westhorpe; MAEL, readings 4-end

Sheridan, M. et al. (2008). From Birth to Five Years: children’s developmental progress. (4th ed.) London: Routledge

 

Indicative Further Reading:

 

Barnes P. (ed.) (1995) Personal, Social and Emotional Development of Children Oxford, Blackwell Publisher Ltd for the Open University

Bee, H. & Boyd, D. (2010). The Developing Child. (12th ed.) Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon ch. 4 & 11

Berk, L.E. (2012) Child Development (9th ed.) Boston, NJ; Allyn & Bacon, chapters 5, 10-11

Bettelheim B. (1987) A Good Enough Parent London, Thames & Hudson,

Boeree, C.G. (2006). Erik Erikson; 1902-1994. from webspace.ship.edu/cgboer

Bowlby J. (1965) Child Care and the Growth of Love (2nd ed.)  Harmondsworth, Penguin

Brooker, L. (2008). Supporting Transitions in the Early Years. Maidenhead; Open University Press.

Bruce, T. (2011). Early Childhood Education (4th ed.) Coventry, Hodder and Stoughton.

Dowling, M. (2014). Young Children’s Personal, Social and Emotional Development. (4th ed.) London; Sage.

Gerhardt, S. (2015). Why Love Matters: How affection shapes a baby’s brain. (2nd ed.) London: Routledge.

Goddard-Blythe, S. (2005). The Well Balanced Child: Movement and early learning. Stroud: Hawthorn Press, chapters 2,3 & 11

Goddard-Blythe, S. (2009). Attention, Balance and Coordination. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

Humphrey, N. (2013). Social and Emotional Learning. London: Sage.

Johnson, J. & Nahmad-William, L. (2009). Early Childhood Studies. London: Pearson-Longman.

Karen, R. (1994). Becoming Attached. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Malenfant, N. (2006). Routines & Transitions; A guide for early childhood professionals. St. Paul, MN; Redleaf Press.

Marrone, M. (2014). Attachment and Interaction: from Bowlby to current theory and practice.,  London: Jessica Kingsley.

Maynard, T. & Powell, S. (2014). An Introduction to Early Childhood Studies. (3rd ed.) London: Sage.

Meggitt, C. (2012). Understand Child Development. London; Hodder Educational. pp. 190-203

Montanaro, S. (1991). Understanding the Human Being: the importance of the first 3 years of life. Mountain View CA, Neinhuis USA

Montessori, M. (ed. Haines, A.) (2012). The 1946 London Lectures. Amsterdam; Montessori-Pierson. Lectures 4 ‘The planes of development’ and 20 ‘Solving the social problem.’

Newcombe N. (1996) Child Development: Change over Time (8th ed.) New York, HarperCollins.

Reed, M. & Walker, (2015). A Critical Companion to Early Childhood. London: Sage.

Schaffer, P. (1977) Mothering London, Fontana,

Smith, P. et al. (2011). Understanding Children’s Development. (5th ed.) Oxford, Blackwell,

Stephenson, S.M. (2013).The Joyful Child. Arcata, CA: Michael Olaf Montessori Co.

Trodd, L. (ed.) (2013). Transitions in the Early Years; Working with children and families London; Sage..

Wilson, R.L. & Wilson, R. (2015). Understanding Emotional Development. London: Routledge.

 

Hours (tuition): 20                                                                   Hours (private study): 50

 


 

Unit One: Knowledge of Childcare & Education (ages 0-7)

 

Module 1D: Observing, Assessing and Planning

 

Prerequisite modules:  1C: How Children Develop

 

Rationale:

 

Montessori regarded the ability to observe as an essential requirement for any teacher.  This module focuses on methods of child-observation and their use.  It aims to develop knowledge & understanding of, and practical skills in:

  • the role of observation in early childhood education and various techniques of observation
  • the use of observation to assist children’s individual learning and curriculum, through assessment and planning

 

Representative Topics:

 

Importance of observation.   Methods of observation: specimen description/naturalistic, time sampling, event sampling, anecdotal, participant, check list (including Setailed individual record card), diary description, child studies/profiling, rating scales and ‘snapshot’ observations.     Montessori’s ‘Guide to Psychological Observation’.  Observations of individual children, groups and of environments and appropriate methods to use.   Use of systematic notes whilst observing.

 

Importance of evaluating and analysing observations and using them to plan further activities.   Observation as a basis for change in practice.   Role of observation in establishing individual educational plans.  Means of assessing children’s progress.   The observe, assess, plan cycle.  The whole curriculum and the ‘Topic Wheel’ related to the Early Learning Goals.   Construction of weekly and daily plans.

 

Accurate record keeping.  Manual & electronic methods (e.g. ‘My Montessori Child’ / ‘My Montessori Learning’)

 

Teaching and Learning Strategies:

 

The module will be taught by a mixture of lectures, discussion and small group activities, including the use of videos for practice in observing and assessing developmental stages.  Extensive practice in observation, assessment & planning will be developed through the teaching practice.

 


 

Learning Outcomes (LO):

 

Adult learners will be expected to: and be assessed by:
1.  carry out structured observations of a child, clearly indicating the purpose & method of the observation 1,500 word Setailed evaluations of TWO structured observations using contrasting settings and methods
2. carry out short observations within the nursery day, focusing on the child’s needs, interests & stage of development. Teaching practice task
3. assess children’s progress, using the current  early education curriculum framework and a range of formative assessment techniques.  Report of teaching practice observation by tutor and/or mentor
4. use the results of formative assessment to identify a child’s next steps Report of teaching practice observation by tutor and/or mentor
5.  use the assessments  and the latest EYFS document to plan activities appropriate to the children’s needs Coursework assignment constructing project plans, witrh 1,000 word explanation.
6.  use summative assessment techniques, to record and communicate children’s progression Report of teaching practice observation by tutor and/or mentor
7.  discuss children’s progress and next steps with colleagues and the child’s key person Report of teaching practice observation by tutor and/or mentor
8.  support other staff and work as a team-member in communicating children’s progress and next steps with parents and/or carers Report of teaching practice observation by tutor and/or mentor
9.  keep accurate records of children’s progress Report of teaching practice observation by tutor and/or mentor

 

Reading from the Set Texts:

 

Observing, Assessing and Planning: a book of readings (2015) Westhorpe, MAEL

 

Indicative Further Reading:

 

Barber, J. & Paul-Smith, S. (2012). Early Years Observation and Planning in Practice (2nd ed.) London, MA Education Ltd.

Bentzen W. (2008) Seeing Young Children: A Guide to Observing and Recording Behaviour (6th ed.) New York, Delmar.

Brodie, K. (2013). Observation, Assessment and Planning in the Early Years. Maidnehead; OU Press.

Bruce, T. et al. (2014). Observing Young Children. London; Sage.

Fawcett M. (2009) Learning Through Child Observation (2nd ed.) London, Jessica Kingsley.

Irwin D.M. & Bushnell M.M. (1980) Observational Strategies for Child Study New York, Harcourt Brace.

Kamen, T. (2013). Observation and Assessment for the EYFS.  London; Hodder Educational.

Palaiologou, I. (2012). Child Observation for the Early Years. (2nd ed.) London; Sage

Sharman Carole et al. (2004) Observing Children: a practical approach London, Continuum.

 

Hours (tuition): 10                                                                   Hours (private study): 50

 


 

Unit One: Knowledge of Childcare & Education (ages 0-7)

 

Module 1E: How Children Think and Learn

 

Prerequisite modules:  1A: Preparing the Environment  AND 1C: How Children Develop

 

Rationale:

 

This module centres on young children’s cognitive and intellectual development.  It aims to develop knowledge & understanding of:

  • children’s intellectual development
  • different learning theories and individual differences in learning styles & strategies
  • Montessori’s views of thinking and learning
  • theories of play and their relationship to learning

 

Representative Topics:

 

Intellectual & cognitive development.   Neurological & brain development.  Learning theories, e.g. behaviourist, cognitive & social learning.  Work of theorists such as Bruner, Piaget, and Vygotsky.   Gardener’s Multiple Intelligences.   Implementation of learning theories in the classroom   Montessori’s four Planes of Development contrasted with Piaget’s stages;   Repetition in learning.  Concept formation.    Athey on schemas; Sustained shared thinking.  Play and work.  Different types of play e.g. solitary, parallel, co-operative.  Learning through play.  Learning problems and difficulties.   Factors affecting learning e.g. genetic,  personality, cultural, social, emotional  & environmental.  Different learning styles and different teaching strategies.  Individual teaching versus group teaching.  Evaluation of learning.

 

Teaching and Learning Strategies:

 

The module will be taught by a mixture of lectures, discussion and small group activities, including the use of DVDs for practice in observing children in learning and play situations.

 

Learning Outcomes (LO):

 

Adult learners will be expected to: and be assessed by:
1.  concisely  describe  the expected pattern of cognitive development in the Early Years – years 0-5 in detail, years 6-7 in outline Declarative knowledge of cognitive development and of neurological/brain development, tested by a selection of theory examination question(s) in the psychology module of the unseen theory examination paper
2.  concisely  describe  the essential features of the brain’s development up to the age of  seven
3.  develop effective strategies to develop and extend young children’s thinking. Report of teaching practice observation by tutor and/or mentor
4.  engage young children for extended periods of time in sustained shared thinking. Report of teaching practice observation by tutor and/or mentor
5 analyse and explain how children’s learning is affected by their stage of development. Teaching practice task: case study
6. discuss how individual circumstances can affect learning and development[7]. report as part of child study: Examine the effects of individual circumstances on children’s learning and development. 
7. outline the underlying approaches of a range of theorists[8] (and concisely describe how an understanding of their ideas can affect practice). theory examination question(s)

 

Reading from the Set Texts:

 

How Children Develop: a book of readings. Westhorpe: MAEL

Thinking and Learning in the Early Years Westhorpe: MAEL

 

Indicative Further Reading:

 

Athey C. (1990) Extending Thought in Young Children London, Paul Chapman

Bee, H. & Boyd, D. (2010). The Developing Child. (12th ed.) Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon ch. 6

Boden M. (1994) Piaget London, Fontana Press

Bruce T. (1997) Early Childhood Education 2nd ed., Abingdon, Hodder & Stoughton, chs. 2, 4 – 6

Chattin-McNichols J. (1992) The Montessori Controversy  New York, Delmar Publishers Inc., ch. 11 – ‘Montessori and Piaget’

Donaldson M. Children’s Minds Glasgow, Fontana/Collins, 1978) chs. 2, 4 – 5, 9 & appendix 1 ‘Piaget’s theory of intellectual development.’

Galotti, K.M. (2010). Cognitive Development; Infancy through adolescence. London; Sage.

Gopnik, A. et al. (1999). How Babies Think. London; Weidenfeld & Nicholson.

Goswami, U. (2008). Cognitive Development.  London: Psychology Press.

MacBlain, S. (2014). How Children Learn. London; Sage.

Meggitt C. (2012). Understand Child Development. London: Hodder Educational. pp. 179-183.

Montessori, M. (ed. Haines, A.) (2012). The 1946 London Lectures. Amsterdam; Montessori-Pierson. Lecture 21 ‘Work and play.’

Montessori Mario (1992) Education for Human Development: Understanding Montessori Oxford, Clio, pp. 28ff

Mooney C.G. (2000) An Introduction to Dewey, Montessori, Erikson, Piaget & Vygotsky  St. Paul MN, Readleaf Press

Nutbrown C. (1994) Threads of Thinking London, Paul Chapman

Nutbrown C. (1996) Respectful Educators – Capable Learners London, Paul Chapman

Rambusch, N. McC. (1962). Learning How to Learn. Baltimore, MY: Helicon

Roberts R. (1995) Self Esteem and Successful Early Learning London, Hodder & Stoughton

Vitale Barbara Meister (1982) Unicorns are Real: a right-brained approach to learning Rolling Hills CA, Jalmar Press

Vygotsky L.S. (1978) Mind in Society: the Development of Higher Psychological Processes Harvard University Press

Wood D. (1988) How Children Think and Learn Oxford, Blackwell,

 

Hours (tuition): 20                                                                               Hours (private study): 50

 


 

Unit Two: Use of the Montessori Materials (ages 3-6)

 

Module 2A: Practical Life Skills

 

Prerequisite modules:  none

 

Rationale:

 

This module provides the practical foundation for the later use of the Montessori Method, and introduces the pedagogic principles embedded in practice.  It aims to develop knowledge & understanding of:

  • the Montessori ‘work cycle’
  • the theory underlying the structure of the procedures
  • the correct presentation of the Montessori ‘Practical Life Apparatus’
  • the value of cultural diversity in everyday life

 

Representative Topics:

 

Settling in procedures in the nursery.  Home visits.    Importance of the key worker.  Practical Life Exercises in Montessori schools.  Value and purpose of these exercises – independence, concentration, fine & gross motor control, eye-hand co-ordination, need for order, development of good self-concept.   Social skills; Child’s need to work.   Freedom – child’s right to chose to do or not do a particular activity.   Group activities; Relationship between work/play. Work cycle.  False fatigue.

 

Five PLS areas – Ground Rules and Introductory activities, exercises to developfine and gross motor skils; care of self; care of the environment  (including care of pets , plants, re-cycling/”green” issues etc); social skills e.g. games for saying “Thank You”, Holding Open a Door, Shaking Hands etc.  Walking on the line

 

Individual snack – water and food available to children at all times.  Health & well-being; healthry life-styles; basic hygiene & control of infection; Healthy eating.   Introducing Fire Drill  to children.   Hygiene issues e.g. washing hands, holding pets etc.  Motive of perfection – giving the child opportunities to repeat and perfect a task.   Multi-cultural variations of the exercises.  Adaptations of the exercises for children with Special Needs including able children.   Introduction to the Record Card for individual record keeping.

 

Health & well-being.  Basic hygiene routines; developing independence; infectious diseases (recognition, prevention & control); promoting healthy life-styles.

 

Teaching and Learning Strategies:

 

This module will be taught by a mixture of lectures, DVDs, discussion and small group activities, particularly role play with students working in pairs, one assuming the role of the child, and the other that of the directress (teacher) in order to practice the demonstration of materials.  There is also extensive experience with the materials in the teaching practice.

 


 

Learning Outcomes (LO)

 

Adult learners will be expected to: and be assessed by:
1.  construct plans and demonstrate a developing skill in leading activities to aid physical, personal, social and emotional development, to include:·         exercises of grace & courtesy

·         practical life skills, including both fine & gross motor skills

Reflective diary of at least 20 presentations in the workplace
2. describe the scope and sequence of the Montessori Practical Life Skills curriculum Practical viva examination
3. present the Montessori Practical Life Skills exercises to individual children and reflect on the experience Teaching practice task
4. explain why health & well-being are important to babies and children. written examination questions(s)
5. support other staff and work as a team-member in promoting healthy life-styles for babies, children and their families workplace observation/mentor’s report
6.  demonstrate skills and knowledge for the prevention and control of infection[9] Teaching practice classroom observation by tutor and/or mentor (task 5)
7. identify and act on basic hygiene routines Produce a risk analysis for basic hygiene in the setting
8. enable children to deal with their own hygiene[10] Report of teaching practice observation by tutor/mentor
9. able to identify common childhood illnesses, know recognised immunisation advice and exclusion periods for infections Produce a personalised guide to common childhood illnesses[11]
10. clearly demonstrate a developed facility with the appropriate hygiene processes[12] in a setting classroom observation by tutor and/or mentor

 

Reading from the Set Texts:

 

Gettman, D. (1987). Basic Montessori. Oxford: ABC-Clio ch. 2

Lillard, P.P. (1972). Montessori a Modern Approach New York: Schocken Books ch. 3 pp. 70 –71

Montessori, M. (1988). The  Discovery of the Child. Oxford: Clio ch. 4 – 5

Montessori, M. (1966). The Secret of Childhood. New York: Ballantine Books ch.8 pp. 49 – 59, ch. 26 pp. 185 – 189

 

Indicative Further Reading:

 

Chattin-McNichols, J. (1992). The Montessori Controversy.  New York: Delmar Publishers Inc., ch. 6

Chitwood, D. (2013). Montessori at Home or School; How to teach grace and courtesy. Kindle e-book.

Hainstock, E. (1968). Teaching Montessori in the Home – the Pre-School Years. New York: NAL Penguin Inc., part I

Joosten, A. M. (1968). Exercises of Practical Life – Introduction and List., India, Association Montessori Internationale

Montessori, M.  (1965). Dr. Montessori’s Own Handbook. New York: Schocken Books, pp. 52 – 65

Standing, E. (1957). Maria Montessori Her Life and Work.  New York: Plume Books p.220-221

Rule, A.C. & Stewart, R.A. (2002). Effects of Practical Life Materials on Kindergarteners Fine Motor Skills Early Childhood Education Journal 30(1): 9-13

Wolf, A. (n.d.). A Parents’ Guide to the Montessori Classroom (2nd ed.).  Altoona, PA; Parent Child Press .

 

Hours (tuition): 20                                                                               Hours (private study): 30

 


 

Unit Two: Use of the Montessori Materials (ages 3-6)

 

Module 2B: Sensorial Education

 

Prerequisite modules:  Module 2A: Practical Life Skills

 

Rationale:

 

This module develops Montessori’s concept of sensorial education.  It aims to develop knowledge & understanding of:

  • the value of sensorial education.
  • Montessori techniques for developing the senses
  • Approaches to order in the classroom

 

Representative Topics:

 

The value of sensorial education.   Isolation of the senses to give more intense learning experience;    Senses of sight, touch, hearing, smell, taste, stereognostic, muscular memory.   The Montessori didactic apparatus and how it is used to develop the senses.  Simplification of the exercises for children with special needs.   Sensorial variations and extensions for the older or more able child.  The Silence Game.   Stereognostic exercises.  Adapting the materials for children with particular needs.  The Three Period Lesson as a method of teaching key language concept words e.g. large, small; large, larger; large, larger, the largest etc.

 

Teaching and Learning Strategies:

 

The module will be taught by a mixture of lectures, DVDs, video clips, discussion and small group activities, particularly using role play with students working in pairs, one taking the part of the child and the other assuming the role of the teacher.   During the teaching practice students have to write notes and evaluations of their presentations, in constructing a reflective diary of their work.

 

Learning Outcomes (LO)

 

Adult learners will be expected to: and be assessed by:
1. describe the scope and sequence of the Montessori Sensorial Education curriculum Summative examination in viva practical exam
2. present the Montessori sensorial materials in a way that provides a child with a meaningful experience Teaching practice classroom observation by tutor and/or mentor
3. enhance a child’s vocabulary and understanding through the use of the ‘three period lesson’ Summative examination in viva practical exam 

Teaching practice classroom observation by tutor and/or& mentor

4. encourage children to respond to and develop their sensorial impressions, as they learn from their exploration of sound, colour, texture, shape and spacial form in 2 and 3 dimensions Teaching practice classroom observation by tutor and/or mentor
5.  adapt activities for children with special needs or interests 

 

 

Reading from the Set Texts:

 

Gettman, D. (1987). Basic Montessori. Oxford: ABC-Clio ch. 3

Montessori, M.  (1988.) The  Discovery of the Child. Oxford: Clio, chs. 6, 7, 8, and 9

Montessori, M.  (1965). Dr. Montessori’s Own Handbook. New York: Schocken Books, pp. 65 – 131

 

Indicative Further Reading:

 

Chattin-McNichols, J. (1992). The Montessori Controversy.  New York, Delmar Publishers Inc., ch. 7

Cole and Cole, M. & S (2001). The Development of Children. (4th ed.) New York: Worth Publishers,  ch. 4 pp. 132 – 138

Erickson, J.M. (1988). Wisdom and the Senses. New York: Norton,

Fleege, V.B. (1967). Sensorial Materials: variations & extensions. San Leandro, CA: Montessori Research and Development.

Hainstock, E. (1968). Teaching Montessori in the Home – the Pre-School Years. New York: NAL Penguin Inc., part I

Longhorn, F. (1988). A Sensory Curriculum for Very Special People. London: Souvenir.

Montessori, M. (ed. Haines, A.) (2012). The 1946 London Lectures. Amsterdam; Montessori-Pierson. Lecture 10 ‘Unlocking the intelligence.’

Wolf, A. (1968). A Parents’ Guide to the Montessori Classroom. Altoona, PA: Parent-Child Press

 

Hours (tuition): 20                                                                               Hours (private study): 30

 


 

Unit Two: Use of the Montessori Materials (ages 3-6)

 

Module 2C: Teaching about the World

 

Prerequisite modules:  2A: Practical Life Skills AND 2B: Sensorial Education

 

Rationale:

 

This module covers the Montessori ‘cultural subjects’ which refers to subjects which would be termed Geography, History, Science and Technology in a mainstream context.   However they have a particularly multi-cultural, integrated and humanistic emphasis in a Montessorian context.   The exercises aim to develop knowledge and understanding of the lives and needs of people, in their relationships within space, in time, in their relationship to the natural environment and to the man-made environment.

 

Representative Topics:

 

Globes of the world.  Land, air & water.  Land and water forms.  Earth, shape and structure.;  Continents and countries.  People & communities and cultural diversity.  Cultural and religious festivals, events and customs .  Local geography.  Map reading and making.

 

The variety of living things.  Elements of classification.  Habitats.  Life cycles; puzzles of parts of living things (e.g. birds, trees, etc.)

 

The concept of time. The Birthday Game.  Personal time lines.  Annual/seasonal changes.  The prehistoric time line. Characteristics of the main eras.

 

Appropriate technology (including the role of ICT and e-media) for young children.

 

The initial introduction of the Peace Curriculum and the Cosmic Plan to young children.

 

Teaching and Learning Strategies:

 

The module will be taught by a mixture of lectures, DVDs, video clips, discussion and small group activities, particularly role play using the presentations.   There is also the opportunity to learn to make classroom materials.  A reflective diary of classroom activities will be kept.

 


 

Learning Outcomes (LO):

 

Adult learners will be expected to: and be assessed by:
1. construct plans and demonstrate a developing skill in leading activities to develop a basic understanding of the world[13] Declarative knowledge of cultural studies with young children: tested by a selection of theory examination question(s) in the cultural module of the unseen theory examination paper 

Viva practical examination demonstration

 

Report of teaching practice observation by tutor and/or mentor

 

Reflective diary of at least 5 presentations

2.  understand means of eliciting a range of feelings (e.g. wonder, joy or sorrow) in response to the child’s experience of the world Viva practical examination demonstration 

Report of teaching practice observation by tutor and/or mentor

3.  suggest ways of helping children to respond to a range of cultural and religious festivals, events and customs Summative theory examination questions on cultural activities
4.  help children talk about their personal environment and lives Report of teaching practice observation by tutor and/or mentor
5.  apply knowledge of the correct use of Montessori early science and physical geography procedures (including their scope and sequence) Viva practical examination demonstration
6.  Demonstrate theoretical knowledge of, and the ability to apply theory to practice in, the Montessori approach to ‘Cosmic Education’ ‘Cultural studies’ and ‘Peace Education’ Summative theory examination questions on cultural activities

 

Reading from the Set Texts:

 

Montessori, M.  (1949). The Absorbent Mind. Oxford: Clio ch. 17

 

Indicative Further Reading:

 

Gettman, D. (1987). Basic Montessori. Oxford: ABC-Clio ch. 6

Alex, J. & Wolf, A. (2003). I Wonder What’s Out There. Hollidaysberg PA: Parent Child Press Inc.

Barron, M. & Young, K.R. (1996). Ready, Set, Explore. New York: John Wiley & Sons

Fleege, V. (1969). Geography and History for the Montessori Pre-Primary Class. San Leandro CA: Montessori Materials Research Foundation.

Kocher, M.B. (1973). The Montessori Manual of Cultural Subjects. Minneapolis, MN: T.S. Denison & Co.

Mitchell, M. (1982 & 1985),The Discovery of the Environment. Vols. I & II. London: London Montessori Centre

Montessori, M. (ed. Haines, A.) (2012). The 1946 London Lectures. Amsterdam; Montessori-Pierson. Lecture 9 ‘In harmony with nature.’

Seldin, T. & D. (1986). The World in the Palm of her Hand. Silver Springs, MA: Barrie Press,

 

Hours (tuition): 15                                                                               Hours (private study): 30

 


 

 

Unit Two: Use of the Montessori Materials (ages 3-6)

 

Module 2D: Developing Language in Early Childhood

 

Prerequisite modules:  2A: Practical Life Skills AND 2B: Sensorial Education

 

Rationale:

 

Communication is pivotal to social development and is also the matrix for most thinking skills. Language is a fundamental pre-requisite in our society and this module covers the development of linguistic skills from birth up to the age of 7.  It aims to develop knowledge & understanding of:

  • language as it involves speaking, listening, reading, writing
  • how to develop children’s language through a variety of means
  • the main methods of teaching reading
  • developing children’s handwriting skills
  • the Montessori approach to teaching grammar
  • choosing children’s reading books & story telling

 

Representative Topics:

 

Language as speaking, listening, reading, writing.   Telegraphic speech; Difference between language and speech.  Theories of language acquisition e.g. Chomsky/Skinner/Vygotsky.   Montessori’s views on language development.  The link between language and thought.  Restricted & elaborated codes;  Milestones of language development 0 – 6 years e.g. David Crystal.  Factors which may cause difficulty with language skills – e.g. language disorders, delays, glue ear etc.  Developing language stories, rhymes, games, open questions, questioning children effectively, etc.   Child’s sensitivity to a second language.   Relationship between rhymes and later reading ability e.g. Bryant

 

Preparing a child for reading/writing through the Practical Life/Sensorial materials.   Preliminary skills (e.g. auditory discrimination, memory), visual skills necessary etc.   Different approaches to teaching of reading – phonics – analytical and synthetic, look say, paired/shared reading, apprenticeship approach, real books .   Montessori’s writing approach to reading.     Evaluation of published materials/reading schemes.

 

Handwriting skills, paper position, pencil hold etc.   Sassoon script and others for producing reading/writing materials.    Joining up writing early or later.   Phonics including single sounds, blends and phonograms e.g. ch, sh, ion etc.

 

Montessori language/reading materials including introduction of elementary grammar (nouns, verbs, adjectives, articles, conjunctions , prepositions ) and the Montessori theme box.

 

Teaching and Learning Strategies:

 

The module will be taught by a mixture of lectures, audio tapes, video clips, discussion and small group activities, particularly role play using the presentations.   There is also the opportunity to learn to make reading materials.

 


Learning Outcomes (LO):

 

Adult learners will be expected to: and be assessed by:
1.  concisely describe the expected pattern of language development[14] in the Early Years and to review the importance of speech, language and communication to the overall development of the child written report in language portfolio
2. to source material which relates to the early development of language skills. language portfolio task on rhymes
3.  comprehensively describe the expected pattern of the development of literacy in the Early Years written report in language portfolio
4.  construct plans and demonstrate a developing skill in leading activities to support, develop and promote speech, communication and language[15]: Viva practical examination demonstration+ Teaching practice portfolio task 8. on reading books

+ Reflective diary of at least 10 presentations in the workplace

+ Report of teaching practice observation by tutor and/or mentor

5. prepare lesson plans[16] and construct materials for them[17] language portfolio tasks
6.  demonstrate a knowledge of the correct use of, and the ability to apply theory to practice in, Montessori language development procedures (including their scope and sequence) Summative examination in viva practical exam
7.  explain the nature of synthetic phonic approaches in the teaching of reading and  analyse a range of strategies for developing early literacy. 2,000 word coursework essay
8. demonstrate proficiency in their own knowledge and understanding in English. GCSE English grades A-C are a requisite for final completion of the qualification

 

Set Reading:

 

Gettman ,D. (1987). Basic Montessori. Oxford: ABC-Clio, ch. 4

Montessori, M.  (1949). The Absorbent Mind. Oxford: Clio, chs. 10 – 12

Montessori, M.  (1948). The  Discovery of the Child. Oxford: Clio, chs. 14 – 17

 

Indicative Further Reading:

 

Beard, R. (1990). Developing Reading 3-13. London: Hodder Education.

Bee H. & Boyd D. (2004) 10th ed. The Developing Child  Boston MA, Pearson Education Inc., ch. 6

Bower, V. (ed.) (2014). Developing Early Literacy 0-8. London; Sage

Brooks, P. & Kempe, V. (2012). Language Development. Oxford: Blackwell

Bryant, P. & Bradley, L. (1985). Children’s Reading Problems. Oxford: Blackwell.

Chattin-McNichols, J. (1992) .The Montessori Controversy.  New York: Delmar Publishers Inc., ch. 9

Crystal, D. (1986). Listen to Your Child. Harmondsworth: Penguin,

Hainstock, E. (1968). Teaching Montessori in the Home – the School Years. New York: NAL Penguin Inc., part 2

Latley, N. & Blake, T. (2013). Small Talk: Simple ways to boost your child’s speech and language development from birth. London: Pan manmillan.

Johnson, J. & Howe, A. (eds.) (1992). Common Bonds: story telling in the classroom. London: Hodder & Stoughton.

Johnston, R.S. et al. (2011). Long-term effects of synthetic versus analytic phonics teaching… Springer Science + Business Media. Available from http://www2.hull.ac.uk/science/pdf/johnston_etal.pdf

Lawrence, L. (1998). Montessori Read and Write. London: Ebury Press.

Montessori, M. (ed. Haines, A.) (2012). The 1946 London Lectures. Amsterdam; Montessori-Pierson. Lectures 8 ‘The development of language’ and 26 ‘Truth and fairy tales.’

Pinker, S. (1994). The Language Instinct: how the mind creates language. New York: William Morrow.

Sassoon, R. (1990). Handwriting: the way to teach it. Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes.

Sassoon, R. (1995). The Practical Guide to Children’s Handwriting. (2nd ed.) London:, Hodder and Stoughton.

Saxton, M. (2010). Child Language Acquisition and Development. London: Sage

Whitehead, M. (1990). Language & Literacy in the Early Years. London: Paul Chapman

 

Hours (tuition): 20                                                                   Hours (private study): 30

 


 

 

Unit Two: Use of the Montessori Materials (ages 3-6)

 

Module 2E: Developing Numeracy in Early Childhood

 

Prerequisite modules:  2A: Practical Life Skills AND 2B: Sensorial Education

 

Rationale:

 

This module focuses on the development and fostering of early mathematical development.  It aims to develop knowledge & understanding of:

  • the importance of early experience in the development of mathematical ideas
  • the Montessori mathematics scheme

 

Representative Topics:

 

How the life skills and sensorial materials prepare the child for mathematics.   Preparing the child through number rhymes and stories, sorting into sets, matching,  games, calendar time, movement, sequencing, shopping, work with clay etc.   Montessori’s emphasis on moving from concrete to abstract.    The Montessori materials from the Large Number Rods to Golden Bead group exercises.   Concept of zero; The four basic functions ranged 0 – 100.  Estimating.   Measuring, capacity and conservation skills, early understanding of time.

 

Teaching and Learning Strategies:

 

The module will be taught by a mixture of lectures, videos clips, DVDs, discussion and small group activities, particularly role play using the presentations.

 

Learning Outcomes (LO):

 

Adult learners will be expected to: and be assessed by:
1.   comprehensively describe the typical stages in the development of mathematical competencies in the Early Years Introduction to the mathematical module portfolio
2. source material which relates to the early development of numerical concepts Maths portfolio task
3.  construct plans and demonstrate a developing skill in leading activities to enable purposeful play opportunities and educational programmes which include the learning and development areas of EYFS requirements for early mathematics and numeracy Teaching practice classroom observation by tutor and/or mentor
4.  support a child’s mathematical development with practical activities, demonstrating a range of strategies for developing numeracy[18] in early childhood Summative examination in viva practical exam 

Teaching practice – classroom observation by tutor & mentor

5. prepare materials for lesson plans[19] Teaching practice classroom observation by tutor and/or mentor
6. prepare lesson plans for early numeracy[20] Teaching practice classroom observation by tutor and/or mentor
7. use the Montessori materials to teach basic arithmetical skills e.g. counting, addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, etc. and the appropriate vocabulary associated each skill (including their scope and sequence.) Summative examination in viva practical exam 

Teaching practice – classroom observation by tutor & mentor

8. demonstrate the proficiency of their own knowledge and understanding in maths GCSE Maths grades A-C are a requisite for final completion of the qualification

 

Reading from the Set Texts:

 

Gettman, D. (1987). Basic Montessori. Oxford: ABC-Clio ch. 5

Montessori M.  The  Discovery of the Child (Oxford, Clio, 1988 – 1st pub. as 3rd ed. 1948) chapters 18 – 19

 

Indicative Further Reading:

 

Atkinson, S. (1993). Mathematics with Reason. London: Hodder & Stoughton

Burton, L. (1994). Children Learning Mathematics: Patterns and Relationships. New York: Simon Schuster,

Chattin-McNichols, J. (1992). The Montessori Controversy.  New York: Delmar Publishers Inc., ch. 8

Gelman, R. & Gallistel, C.R. (1986). The Child’s Understanding of Number. (2nd ed.) Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Hainstock, E. (1968). Teaching Montessori in the Home – the School Years. New York: NAL Penguin Inc. part 2

Haylock, D. & Cockburn, A. (2013). Understanding Mathematics for Young Children. (4th ed.) London: Sage.

Montague-Smith, A. & Price, A.J. (2012). Mathematics in Early Years Education. (3rd ed.) London; Routledge.

Montessori, M.  (1965). Dr. Montessori’s Own Handbook. New York: Schocken Books, pp. 65 – 131

Taylor, H. & Harris, A. (eds.) (2013). Learning and Teaching Mathematics 0-8. London: Sage.

Tucker, K. (2014). Mathematics through Play in the Early Years. Lon don; Sage.

 

Hours (tuition): 15                                                                   Hours (private study): 30

 


 

 

Unit Two: Use of the Montessori Materials (ages 3-6)

 

Module 2F: Creative Work

 

Prerequisite modules:  2A: Practical Life Skills AND 2B: Sensorial Education

 

Rationale:

 

Art and music had very important roles in the early Montessori schools. This module aims to develop knowledge & understanding of, and practical facility with:

  • the role of creativity and imagination in the early years.
  • the place of music, art, movement/dance and drama in the whole curriculum for younger children.
  • a variety of teaching approaches to aesthetic subjects.

 

Representative Topics:

 

What is creativity in Montessori’s terms?  Contrast with ‘mark making’. Studies of genius e.g. Galton Torrance. Hudson, divergent thinking.   Imagination/fantasy/fairy tales issue.  Montessori’s and Bettleheim’s views.   Expressive art/craft work with different media – paint, pastel, clay, collage, marbling, paste combing etc suitable for nursery children.   Process not product.   Mounting and presentation of children’s work.  Appreciation of art including “Child Sized Masterpieces” scheme;  literature: choosing suitable books for given age range, setting them out in the nursery, multi-ethnic issues.  Movement, dance and drama. Music making and suitable pieces for appreciation.

 

Teaching and Learning Strategies:

 

This module will be taught by a mixture of lectures, discussion and small group activities, directed resource based learning, demonstrations (of creative activities), DVDs.

 

Learning Outcomes (LO):

 

Adult learners will be expected to: and be assessed by:
1.  be able to plan and lead activities, purposeful play opportunities and educational programmes which include the learning and development areas of the EYFS goals for expressive arts and design. Teaching practice classroom observation by tutor and/or mentor
2.  be able to support a child’s use of various materials for a variety of purposes, designing and implementing a range of activities to develop specific need(s) Teaching practice classroom observation by tutor and/or mentor
3.  demonstrate theoretical knowledge of, and the ability to apply theory to practice in, the Montessori approach to artistic and creative activities 

 

Summative examination in viva practical exam 

Teaching practice classroom observation by tutor and/or mentor

 

Reading from the Set Texts:

 

Montessori M.  (1988) The  Discovery of the Child Oxford, Clio chs. 20 – 21

 

 

 

 

Indicative Further Reading:

 

Mitchell, M. (1982 & 1985). The Discovery of the Environment. Vols. I & II London: London Montessori Centre

Gardner, H. (1983). The Arts and Human Development. New York: John Wiley,

Gitter L.L. (1968) The Montessori Approach to Art Education Mafex Assoc.

Hargreaves, D.J. (ed.) (1989). Children and the Arts. Milton Keynes: Open University,

Matthews, J. (1988). The young child’s early representation and drawing. in Blenkin, G.M. & Kelly, A. (eds.) Early Childhood Education: A Developing Curriculum. London, Paul Chapman.

Thomas, G.V. & Silk, A.M. (1989). An Introduction to the Psychology of Children’s Drawings. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Wolf, A. (1996). How to Use Child Sized Masterpieces.  Altoona, PA: Parent & Child Press.

 

Hours (tuition): 5                                                                                 Hours (private study): 30

 


 

 

Unit Three: Teaching Practice

 

Module A: Working with Individual Children

 

Prerequisite modules:  2A: Practical Life Skills AND 2B: Sensorial Education

 

Rationale:

 

This module is designed to introduce the student to the practicalities of Montessori classroom practice and of working with individual children, and aims to develop knowledge & understanding of:

  • the nature and workings of Montessori and other nurseries
  • the relationship between a setting and its environment
  • the uses of observation in the early years
  • the means of recording and storing information
  • the use of Montessori materials in an everyday setting
  • supporting the individual needs of different children

 

Representative Topics:

 

Professional behaviour, security, varieties of provision, non-judgemental observation;  the structure of the day, catchment areas;  applications of observational models;  recording information, developmental records;  self-development, time management, professional development, integration of underpinning values and principles into working practice;  varieties of activities to support development, learning goals & targets, self-evaluation, evaluation of teaching sessions.

 

Working with individual children;  identifying needs; matching needs & provision;  identifying needs for intervention;  activities for additional needs or learning differences, partnership working;  physical care routines;  producing a child study.

 

Teaching and Learning Strategies:

 

Adult learners largely work on their own initiative, with termly seminars to provide guidance and feedback.   Part of the process of the teaching practice is for them to develop their own praxis.  They are encouraged to show initiative in selecting the most appropriate type of evidence to demonstrate they have achieved the learning outcomes.

 

When they have completed these assignments, they are instructed to contact the Centre to find out the next marking date, and arrange to deliver the file.   The tutor will make contact to arrange a visit at the placement, and assess the adult learner working with individual children with the Montessori materials.   Following this review, the learner may be expected to amend his/her practice and, as part of the final evaluation, reflect on the effects on their own practice and that of the work-team.

 


 

Learning Outcomes (LO):

 

Adult learners will be expected to: and be assessed by:
1.  demonstrate, and implement with individual young children, the Montessori philosophy and method including the materials Teaching practice classroom observation by tutor and/or mentor
2.  provide learning experiences, environments and opportunities for individual children which match their developmental stage and particular need Teaching practice classroom observation by tutor and/or mentor
3.  encourage children’s participation in activities, ensuring a balance between adult-led and child-initiated activities. Teaching practice classroom observation by tutor and/or mentor
4.  describe situations where there is the need for support and intervention for learning differences or additional needs, recognising when a child is in need of additional support  and plan and provide activities to meet those needs, working in partnership with parents and/or carers and other professionals, where appropriate Teaching practice classroom observation by tutor and/or mentor
5.  plan and carry out physical care routines suitable to the age, stage and personal needs of the child concerned Teaching practice classroom observation by tutor and/or mentor

 

Reading:

 

There is no separate reading for this module but many of the books cited in the other modules, especially for unit 2 module A, will be relevant.

 

Hours (tuition): 5                                                                     Hours (private study): 40

 


 

 

Unit Three: Teaching Practice

 

Module B: Working with Groups of Children

 

Prerequisite modules:  3B: Working with Individual Children

 

Rationale:

 

This module is designed to develop the student’s understanding of the practicalities of Montessori classroom practice and of working with groups of children, and aims to develop knowledge & understanding of:

  • curriculum planning in the light of the Early Learning Goals
  • the dynamics of teaching groups of children
  • evaluation and self appraisal

 

Representative Topics:

 

Curriculum wheels, ELGs, activity basis for lessons, weekly plans, communication, evaluation;  recording information, developmental records;  self-development, time management, professional development, integration of underpinning values and principles into working practice.

 

Promoting group learning & socialisation;  balancing adult initiated & child-led activities;  inclusion & flexibility.

 

Teaching and Learning Strategies:

 

Adult learners largely work on their own initiative, with termly seminars to provide guidance and feedback.   Part of the process of the teaching practice is for them to develop their own praxis.   They are encouraged to show initiative in selecting the most appropriate type of evidence to demonstrate they have achieved the learning outcomes.

 

When they are ready, they are instructed to contact the Centre to arrange a tutor visit to the placement, to assess the adult learner working with a group of children as part of their project.   Following this review, the learner may be expected to amend his/her practice and, as part of the final evaluation, establish the effects on their practice and that of the work-team.

 

Learning Outcomes (LO):

 

Adult learners will be expected to: and be assessed by:
1.  provide planned learning experiences and opportunities for groups of children which are appropriate to their developmental stage and needs Teaching practice classroom observation by tutor and/or mentor
2.  provide learning experiences, environments and opportunities appropriate to the age, stage and needs of groups of children, encouraging their participation and ensuring a balance between adult-led and child-initiated activities. Teaching practice classroom observation by tutor and/or mentor (tasks 4 & 10)
3.  support and promote young children’s group learning and socialisation Teaching practice classroom observation by tutor and/or mentor (task 10)

 

 

 

Reading:

 

There is no separate reading for this module but many of the books cited in the other modules, especially for unit 3 module 3, will be relevant.

 

Hours (tuition): 5                                                                                 Hours (private study): 40

 


 


Unit Three: Teaching Practice

 

Module C: Classroom and Nursery Management

 

Prerequisite modules:  1B: The Teacher’s Task

 

Rationale:

 

This module focuses on the leadership role of the EYE.  It aims to develop knowledge & understanding of:

  • the professional operation of a classroom and nursery school.
  • producing and implementing policies
  • means of resourcing equipment
  • forming partnerships with parents and other professionals.
  • ensuring equality of opportunity for all children

 

Representative Topics:

 

Setting up a nursery school.   Market research.  Suitable fees and Early Years Funding system for 3 and 4 year olds.  Writing a business plan.   Obtaining finance.  Finding premises.  Obtaining change of use/planning permission.   Working from home.   Procedures for obtaining Ofsted approval.   Policy writing – Health and Safety, equal opportunities, admissions, discipline, etc – all policies required by National Standards.   Writing a prospectus.    Advertising the nursery. Professional behaviour.  Requirements of  SEN Code of Practice.   Recruiting and training staff.  Wages.    Job descriptions and contracts.   Issues of professional development.   Communicating with parents and working in partnership with them.  Report writing.   Record keeping including keeping a register, accident and incident book etc.  Finances, tax affairs and National Insurance.    Children and parents rights.

Understand the need for confidentiality.   Strategies for coping with stress.

Please note that this section of the syllabus is optional and is not assessed.

 

Partnership working.  Key worker system; partnering with parents, setting staff & other professionals[21]; keeping essential records; meeting babies and children’s needs; validating parental/carer’s contribution to health & well-being; play, learning & development.  Leadership skills; knowledge of legislation, professional behaviour, supporting & guiding other staff when appropriate; risk management;

 

Teaching and Learning Strategies:

 

The module will be taught by a mixture of lectures, videos, discussion and small group activities,  During the teaching practice students have opportunities to reflect on their experience of teaching individuals and groups, and of managing the whole day.

 


 

Learning Outcomes (LO):

 

Adult learners will be expected to: and be assessed by:
1.  demonstrate and implement classroom leadership skills, knowing the current legal requirements and guidance on health and safety, security, confidentiality of information, safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children, and identify and act upon their own responsibilities in these matters Teaching practice classroom portfolio task and also classroom observation by tutor and/or mentor
2.  identify personal responsibilities, and to act upon them professionally, in relation to relevant legislation and official guidance and the code of professional practice. Teaching practice classroom portfolio task and also classroom observation by tutor and/or mentor
3.  carry out risk assessment and risk management in line with the policies and procedures of their placement. produce a risk assessment for a specific situation (e.g. going out) which does not conflict with the setting’s policies and procedures.
4. successfully undertake an approved 12-hour first aid course The provider’s assessment[22] and separate certification
5. demonstrate procedural knowledge of how to respond to emergencies[23] Teaching practice classroom observation by tutor and/or mentor (task 5)
6.  know the current legal requirements and protocols on safeguarding; understand the placement setting’s safeguarding policies and procedures, including child protection; recognise when a child is in danger or at risk of abuse[24], and know how to act to protect them. A separately certificated and approved safeguarding course[25] completion is required for completion of the qualification
7. support other staff and work as a team-member to maintain essential records[26] and ensure everyone who needs to know is aware. classroom observation by tutor and/or mentor
8.  understand the importance of parent/teacher/ family/community partnership and collaborate with partnerships in practice, demonstrating grace and courtesy Teaching practice classroom observation by tutor and/or mentor
9.  support other staff and work as a team-member  with colleagues and other professionals to meet the needs of babies and children and enable them to progress classroom observation by tutor and/or mentor
10. support other staff and work as a team-member in developing parent partnerships to validate parental/carer’s significant contributions to their children’s health & well-being classroom observation by tutor and/or mentor
11.  support other staff and work as a team-member  in developing parent partnerships to validate parental/carer’s significant contributions to their children’s learning & development classroom observation by tutor and/or mentor
12. support other staff and work as a team-member in facilitating parents and/or carers taking an active role in their child’s play, learning and development. classroom observation by tutor and/or mentor
13. show awareness of the requirements of professional practice through the implementation of that awareness in the daily work of the setting classroom observation by tutor and/or mentor
14. supervise other staff classroom observation by tutor and/or mentor
15. reflect productively on work experience classroom observation by tutor and/or mentor

 

Indicative Further Reading:

 

Andreski, R. & Nicholls, (1996). Managing Your Nursery. London: Nursery World.

Commission for Racial Equality (1996) .From Cradle to School. London: CRE.

Dickins, M. & Denziloe, J. (2004). All together: How to create inclusive services for disabled children and their families. A practical handbook for early years workers. London:National Children’s Bureau.

Franklin, B. (ed.) (1995). The Handbook of Children’s Rights. London, Routledge

Handy, C. (1993). Understanding Organisations. Harmondsworth, Penguin

Ludlow, R. & Panton, F. (1992). The Essence of Successful Staff Selection. Harlow: Prentice Hall (UK) Ltd.

Rodd, J. (1994), Leadership in Early Childhood: the pathway to professionalism. Milton Keynes: Open University.

Sadek, E. & J. (1996). Good Practice in Nursery Management.  Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes.

Stanton, J. et al. (1989). Child Abuse & Neglect: Facing the Challenge, Milton Keynes: Open University.

Stott, K. & Walker, A. (1992). Making Management Work: A Practical Approach. Singapore: Simon & Schuster.

 

Journals

 

Early Years. Published thrice-yearly by Routledge for TACTYC.

Management in Education. Published quarterly by Sage Books

 

Hours (tuition): 5                                                                                 Hours (private study): 90

 

 

[1]              to include but not necessarily be limited to: free-flow in the setting, the 3 hour work cycle, breaks in the 3 hour cycle (e.g. snack time, circle time, etc.), transitions in the nursery day, open access to materials;

[2]              to include but not necessarily be limited to the following transitional/significant experiences: birth of a sibling, introduction of a step-parent, moving home, living outside of the home, family breakdown, loss of significant people (e.g. parent, carer, key person);

[3]     to include: exercises of grace & courtesy; practical life skills;

[4]    to include, but not be limited to: family circumstances, social  background, genetic factors, disease/illness, diet, educational opportunities, disability, experience of discrimination;

[5]     to include: starting and moving through pre-school/day care, moving between settings and carers, moving to school;

[6]   to include:  Montessori’s planes of development model, Erikson’s crises model and Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model

[7]              to include, but not be limited to: family circumstances, social  background, genetic factors, disease/illness, diet, educational opportunities, disability;

[8]   to include, but not be limited to, the following: Athey, Bruner, Montessori, Piaget, Vygotsky, Gardener

[9]           measures to include

  • hand washing
  • food hygiene
  • dealing with spillages safely
  • safe disposal of waste
  • using correct personal protective equipment
  • knowledge of common childhood illnesses and immunisation
  • exclusion periods for infectious diseases

[10]  to include, but not be limited to: cleaning hands/noses, dealing with spills, waste & accidents

[11]         to include: name & common signs/symptoms of illness; recognised immunisation advice; when an infection is notifiable and exclusion periods for infections.

[12]         To include, at least: hand washing, food hygiene, dealing with spillages safely, safe disposal of waste, using correct personal protective equipment;

[13]  to include: foundational science, simple physical geography, cultural studies, cosmic education, peace education

[14]  To include: non-verbal communication, speech, listening, reading & writing

[15]  to include: extending vocabulary, language structure, dialogue, sensorial education (including the 3-period lesson)

[16]  illustrated by choice of words for language cards & boxes

[17]  illustrated by inset drawings, sandpaper letters, reading cards and a phonic theme box

[18]         with particular reference to: counting, basic numerical operations (+, -, x, /) and measuring,

[19]  illustrated by sandpaper numeral & subtraction strip board

[20]  exemplified by the zero game

[21] As well as setting staff, particularly the key worker, professional may include: speech therapist; educational psychologist; physiotherapist; health visitor, social worker; special needs referral unit staff; GP; dietician; staff at next school.

[22]  To include paediatric CPD, fractures, choking, cuts & abrasions

[23] to include: fire, a lost child, uncollected children, intruder(s);

[24] types of abuse should include: domestic (including indirect); neglect ; physical; emotional and sexual abuse

[25] To include types of abuse, legal requirements, recognition and confidentiality

[26]  to include: Montessori record card, medication requirements and medicine administration logs, special dietary needs/allergies list, planning documentation, observation and assessment records, health, safety and security record, accident book, incidents book;

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